Thursday, May 4, 2017, 9:00 – 11:00
Šarūnė Barsevičienė holds a bachelor and a mater degree in Public Health Management, Lithuanian Health Sciences University, Lithuania.
Currently, she is a member of the Health Sciences Faculty, Klaipėda State University of Applied Sciences, Lithuania.
Šarūnė Barsevičienė has been developing research on health statistics and on health education and promotion.
Teachers approach towards health promotion in schools of Klaipèda
Background: The World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) Schools for health (SHE) framework is a holistic, settings-based approach to promoting health and educational attainment in school (SHE report, 2014). 285 schools in Lithuania belong to national SHE network (Health education and disease prevention centre, 2017). 50% of girls and 58% of boys eat breakfast, only 30% of girls and 25% of boys eat fruit daily, 23% of boys and only 12% of girls are physically active, more than half of schoolchildren feel pressured by schoolwork, 12% of fifteen years old girls and 20% of fifteen years old boys are active smokers (HBSC report, 2014). Teachers suppose to cooperate with public health specialists in health promotion and education activities.
The aim: To analyze Klaipeda’s Teachers’ approach to health promotion in school.
Objectives: 1. To find out what are the main health-related problems of school children, according to their teachers. 2. To evaluate teachers opinion about integrated health education. 3. To estimate how teachers value public health specialists activity at school.
Methods: Questionnaire survey of teachers was conducted in schools of Klaipėda in 2013. 300 teachers of Klaipėda were randomly selected (using the list of all the teachers working in Klaipėda) to participate in a survey, 278 of them filled in and returned questionnaires (response rate – 92.6 percent.). The Likert scale from 0 to 4 (where 4 is the highest score) was used in the questionnaire. Pearson’s chi square test and Student’s t test were used to analyze data.
Results: The main health-related problems of schoolchildren in general schools (that have grades from 1 to 10), according to the teachers, were malnutrition (3.03±0.160) and smoking or other health threatening habits (3.02±0.802). The main health-related problems of schoolchildren in other schools (gymnasiums, secondary schools) were schoolwork (3.04±0.680) and lack of sports equipment (2.96±0.887). 79.5% of natural sciences teachers, 81.2% of language teachers, 88,6% of exact sciences teachers, 100% of primary teachers integrate health topics in their subjects and 93.2% of other subjects teachers integrate health topics in their subjects. As the most important fields for public health specialist teachers consider to be: cooperation with other health institutions (3.80±1.816 in general schools and 3.91±2.041 in other schools, p<0.05) and first aid (3.73±0.489 in general schools and 3.90±0.297 in other schools, p0.05), but teachers of general schools give lower average score to the cooperation of public health specialist with other health institutions (3.44±1.592 vs. 3.81±2.494, p<0.05).
Conclusions: Teachers agreed that behavioral health-related problems were common among schoolchildren, but they still thought that the most important task of public health specialist at school wass to provide first aid. Although many teachers (89.2%) integrated health topics in their subjects, nevertheless only 29.9% cooperated with public health specialist on this, in order to achieve the effective health promotion.
Nazaré Nazário is a member of the Faculty of Medicine, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, Brazil.
Nazaré is a lecturer of the degree in Medicine and a lecturer and coordinator of the post-graduation in Health Sciences of the Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
Teaching, research and extension: The Principle of indissociablity in universities and its contribution in the formation of new researchers in Health.
The Constitution in force in Brazil imposes on universities the principle of indissociability between teaching, research and extension. Teaching, understood not as the transfer of knowledge, but as the creation of possibilities for its construction. Research, understood as the investigation done on some phenomenon, seeking answers to certain doubts, i.e., the production of knowledge supported by the triad doubt, theory and method. Extension, as the way to experience the teaching-learning process beyond the limits of the classroom, with the possibility of articulating the university with society, in an enriching exchange of knowledge and experiences. The extension aims to disseminate the knowledge acquired and produced, taking it close to the population. Constructivist theories advocate the substitution of teaching methodologies centered on the teacher as a transmitter of knowledge for student-centered methodologies that allow the development of their critical-reflexive capacities, with the teacher as a facilitator of the learning-teaching-learning process. In this theoretical assumption, the production of knowledge would be the result of the construction that takes place in socio-cultural and environmental relations, during the formation process. Integration into the teaching-learning process of this constitutional principle is a basic premise for the full development of students, besides being decisive for stimulating the production of knowledge, based on the actual health needs of society, with the student as the central agent of his own formation. That is, in the context of active methodologies that makes the student protagonist of that construction in favor of a meaningful learning, able to produce and make sense in his/her personal, educational, institutional and professional life through action-reflection-action. That construction is possible to the extent that the student in the health area appropriates criticism and reflection to account for the health needs of the population during the formation trajectory. Faced with the tension between the traditional model of teaching and the growing appreciation in the production of new knowledge, the concern of universities with their social role is intensified. The definition of concrete ways for education to take place from the constitutional teaching-research-extension tripod is fundamental for the development of scientific research and academic investment in the training of new health researchers. The medical course of the University of Southern Santa Catarina has implemented proposals based on this constitutional principle. An example of this is the creation of a structural design in the area of Gynecology and Obstetrics to work curricular contents from clinical and social interests, which ends up contributing to the formation of new potential health researchers.
Jurgita Andruskiene is a Professor at Klaipeda State University of Applied Sciences, and head of the Department of Oral Care and Nutrition. Her scientific interests focus on the research risk factors of chronic non-communicable diseases, particularly hypercholesterolemia, obesity and arterial hypertension. She participated in several national and international research projects aiming to control health risk factors, such as stress at work, disturbed sleep and/or psychoemotional problems. During the period of last five years she published 14 international scientific articles and 3 textbooks for the students of higher education institutions.
Jurgita Andruškiene @ ResearchGate
Quality of Life among the Students of Klaipeda State University of Applied Sciences
Background. Students’ quality of life was not frequently investigated in Lithuania and other Nothern European countries, however, the results of scientific research indicated that decreased ability to achieve learning outcomes was related to worsened quality of life (Shareef et al., 2015; Mikolajczyk et al., 2008; Henning et al., 2012).
The aim of the research was to compare students’ quality of life, according to the studying area in Klaipeda State University of Applied Sciences.
Methods. The study sample consisted of the students: 650 women and 32 men (the response rate 73.4%). They were studying Nursing (n=130), Physiotherapy (n=135), Beauty therapy (n=143), Dental assisting (n=56), Dental hygiene (n=66) or Social work (n=152). All the students were examined by self-administered WHOQOL-100 (WHO, 1995) questionnaire in 2012. The WHOQOL-100 was organized into the following domains: Overall quality of life, Physical, Psychological, Level of independence, Social relationships, Environmental and Spirituality domains. To compare means scores among study programmes, ANOVA analysis was performed. The difference was considered to be statistically significant when p<0.05.
Ethical Implications. Approval from the local Ethics Commission in Klaipeda State University of Applied Sciences, was obtained prior to the research. Students were informed about the main objectives of the research and were instructed how to fill in the questionnaire. Students who refused to participate in research were not questioned.
Results. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, reflecting validity of the instrument WHOQOL-100, ranged from 0.72 (Overall quality of life) to 0.88 (Psychological domain). The domain of Overall quality of life demonstrated the strongest stability, according test-retest (r=0.86), the weakest stability was in the domain of Spirituality (r=0.50).
The mean scores in Overall quality of life domain ranged from 59.60 (Nursing) to 66.50 (Dental assisting), p=0.007. Mean scores in Physical domain varied from 58.30 (Nursing) to 64.40 (Dental hygiene), p=0.02. The mean scores in Psychological domain ranged from 60.50 (Nursing) to 66.30 (Dental hygiene), p=0.002. Level of independence domain was scored from 74.60 (Nursing) to 81.40 (Dental assisting and Dental hygiene), p<0.001. Social relationship domain was scored from 66.30 (Nursing) to 72.20 (Physiotherapy), p=0.015. Environmental domain has got the lowest score in Nursing programme (54.60), the highest one – in Dental assisting (60.30), p=0.001. The mean scores in Spirituality domain varied from 60.10 (Nursing) to 67.30 (Physiotherapy), p=0.039. The students of Nursing have got the lowest scores in all quality of life domains.
Conclusions. Overall quality of life and Environmental domains were assessed by the highest scores among Dental assisting students. Physical and Psychological domains have got the highest scores among Dental hygiene students. The domains of Social relationships and Spirituality were highly evaluated by Physiotherapy students. The results of the study could be used for deeper analysis of the relations among quality of life, learning outcomes and future carrier perspectives in different studying areas.
Javier Cubero Juánez
Javier Cubero is a member of the Departament of Didactics for Experimental Sciences and Mathematics, University of Extremadura, Spain.
Javier has been lecturing and researching under the subjects of Biology, Physiology, Nutrition and Health Education.
Javier Cubero Juárez @ ResearchGate
Health Education & e_Health Literacy
The present communication is originated before the social demand of a continuous and constant scientific knowledge, that is to say the need of a scientific literacy that qualifies us to deal and to adapt to our new society; digital and global. The above mentioned demand in scientific formation not only includes the technological and empirical contents, but also it demands a scientific literacy related to contents of health and of the healthy way of life. We cannot forget that “the most popular lists of searches in Google in 2015”, they were for the terms related to the health, especially: How to avoid …? How to know ….? What to do when?….
But this rapid information of the network can generate an erroneous learning if we are instructed neither in a few scientific basic contents of health, nor in the selection of search of this digital knowledge related by health and his habits of life. The ignorance is the major factor of risk for the health, from this fact the concept of Health Literacy (HL). And it is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO); “Health Literacy refers to the social and cognitive skills that determine the level of motivation and the capacity of a person to accede, to deal and to use the information so that it allows him to promote and to support a good health”.
In addition this discipline due to our current digital society evolves to e_Health Literacy (e_Health Literacy).
To clarify that this interest and use of the scientific knowledge centered on contents on – our health-, not only it relapses into the individual learning, but one sees reflected in the whole group and his healthy behaviors of life, without forgetting the benefits that reach for the development, the progress and the competitiveness of the modern companies.